مدیریت ضایعات حاصل از ساخت و تخریب در پروژه‌های صنعت ساخت با استفاده از رویکرد پویایی سیستم‌ها

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت پروژه و ساخت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت پروژه و ساخت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت پروژه و ساخت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ابزارهای اقتصادی به‌طور قطعی به‌عنوان روشی مؤثر برای تشویق و یا اجباری پیمانکاران برای اجرای روش‌های انجام کار سازگار با محیط‌زیست است. مطالعات قبلی در رابطه با این موضوع عمدتاً بر مدیریت نخاله‌های ساختمانی (C & D) ازنقطه‌نظر ایستا تأکید می‌کند که با اتخاذ تمام فعالیت‌های ضروری در زنجیره زباله، طبیعت پویایی آن در نظر گرفته نشده است. بنابراین هدف این مقاله، تبیین پویایی و روابط بین اجزاء مدیریت زباله‌های C&D و تحلیل هزینه و سود و هزینه‌های حمل‌ونقل و مصرف سوخت با استفاده از رویکرد پویایی سیستم‌هاست. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که اجرای مدیریت زباله‌های C&D مزایای زیادی را در پی دارد، اما هزینه بالاتر دفن زباله در محل‌های مجاز منجر به سود خالص بیشتری خواهد شد که البته معایبی چون آسیب‌های زیست‌محیطی را به همراه خواهد داشت. علاوه بر این، عموم مردم از دفن زباله‌ها در محل‌های غیرمجاز و تحمیل هزینه‌های زیست‌محیطی ناشی از تخلیه غیرقانونی رنج می‌برند. نتایج شبیه‌سازی نیز نشان می‌دهد افزایش دفن زباله‌ها در محل‌های غیرمجاز سبب افزایش مصرف سوخت و انرژی و درنتیجه آن افزایش هزینه‌های مصرف سوخت می‌گردد. این پژوهش با بررسی و ارزیابی تحقیقات و اقدامات انجام‌شده درزمینة پسماندها و نخاله‌های ساختمانی، در پی روشن نمودن استفاده از دیدگاه سیستمی با استفاده از پویایی سیستم‌ها در جهتی است که به کمک آن بتوان با استفاده از تحلیل هزینه – سود، پیمانکاران را تشویق به دفع نخاله‌های ساختمانی به روشی کند که در جهت توسعه صنعت ساختمان و حفظ محیط زیست و صرفه‌جویی‌های ناشی از آن گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Management of Waste Generated by Construction and Demolish in Construction Industry Projects Using the Dynamics of Systems Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iman Shafiei 1
  • Ehsanollah Eshtehardian 2
  • Mojtaba Azizi 3
1 MSc in Project Management and Construction, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Project Management and Construction Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Project Management and Construction Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Economic tools are definitely an effective way to encourage or enforce contractors to enforce environmentally-friendly practices. Previous studies on this subject mainly focus on the management of waste of construction and demolish (C & D) from the static point of view, which does not take into account the nature of its dynamic by taking all necessary activities in the waste chain. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explain the dynamics and relationships between the components of C&D waste management and to analyze the costs and benefits and cost of transportation and fuel consumption using the system dynamics approach. The findings show that the implementation of C&D waste management has many benefits, but the higher cost of landfill at authorized sites will result in more net profits, which will be accompanied by disadvantages such as environmental damage. In addition, the public is suffering from landfill in unauthorized locations and imposing environmental costs due to illegal evacuation. Simulation results also show that increased landfill in unauthorized locations increases fuel and energy consumption and therefore increases fuel consumption costs. This study by investigating and evaluating the researches and measures taken on the waste and waste spillway aims to clarify the use of a systematic approach using the dynamics of systems in a direction in which it is possible to use contract cost-benefit analysis to encourage contractors to disposal of Construction waste in a way that is conducive to the development of the building industry and the preservation of the environment and the resulting savings.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Construction and demolish waste
  • system dynamics
  • Cost-benefit analyze
  • saving energy
  • sustainable development
[1]           L. Y. S. V. W. Y. T. C. M. T. a. D. Drew, "Mapping Approach for Examining Waste Management on Construction Sites," Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 130, no. 4, 2004.
[2]           V. W. C.M. Tam Tam, "Waste reduction through incentives: a case study," Building Research & Information, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 37-41, 2008.
[3]           J. J. T. T. Corrie Clark "A Review of Construction and Demolition Debris Regulations in the United States," Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 36, no. 2, 2006.
[4]           E. S. TH Mills, D Jarman, "A cost-effective waste management plan," Cost Engineering, vol. 41, no. 3, 1999.
[5]           S. C. Begum R, Pereira JJ, Jaafar AH, "A benefit–cost analysis on the economic feasibility of construction waste minimization: the case of Malaysia," Resources, Conservation & Recycling, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 86-98, 2006.
[6]           H. M. Hao JL, Huang T, "A simulation model using system dynamic method for construction and demolition waste management in Hong Kong," Journal of Construction Innovation, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 7-21, 2007.
[7]           Y. H. Wang JY, "Construction waste management model based on system dynamics," System Engineering: Theory & Practice, vol. 29, no. 7, 2009.
[8]           L. Y. S. H.P. Yuan , , Jane J.L. Hao , W.S. Lu "A model for cost–benefit analysis of construction and demolition waste management throughout the waste chain," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, pp. 604-612, 2011.
[9]           H. T. Hirokazu Shima, Ryuji Matsuhashi, Yoshikuni Yoshida, "An Advanced Concrete Recycling Technology and its Applicability Assessment through Input-Output Analysis," Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, vol. 3, 2005.
[10]         C. F. Hendriks, Pietersen, H.S, Sustainable Raw Materials: Construction and Demolition Waste (report 22). France: RILEM Publication, 2000.
[11]         V. W. Y. Tam, "On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction," Waste Management vol. 28, 2008.
[12]         Bell, "Waste minimization and resource recovery," The environmental design guide, vol. 2, 1998.
[13]         C. Poon, "Reducing construction waste," Waste Management vol. 27, no. 12, 2007.
[14]         M. Sartipipour, "Opportunity for recycling materials in post-traumatic reconstruction (research on concrete)," maskan & mohite roosta, vol. 152, 2014.
[15]         Y. A. Poon CS, Ng LH, "On-site sorting of construction and demolition waste in Hong Kong," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 157-72, 2001.
[16]         T. A. Wang JY, Christoforou C, Fadlalla H, "A system analysis tool for construction and demolition wastes management.," Waste Management, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 989-97, 2004.
[17]         S. D. Peng CL, Kitbert CJ, "Peng CL, Scorpio DE, Kitbert CJ. Strategies for successful construction and demolition waste recycling operations," Construction Management and Economics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 49-58, 1997.
[18]         T. C. Tam VWY, "Evaluation of existing waste recycling methods: a Hong Kong study," Building and Environment, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1649-60, 2006.
[19]         Y. H. Shen LY, Alan G, "Improving environmental performance by means of empowerment of contractors," Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 242-57, 2006.
[20]         H. P. Yuan, L. Y. Shen, J. J. L. Hao, and W. S. Lu, "A model for cost–benefit analysis of construction and demolition waste management throughout the waste chain," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 604-612, 2011.
[21]         H. M. Hao JL, Shen LY, "Managing construction waste on-site through system dynamics modeling: the case of Hong Kong," Engineering, Construction andArchitectural Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 103-13, 2008.
[22]         T. Wang, J. Wang, P. Wu, J. Wang, Q. He, and X. Wang, "Estimating the environmental costs and benefits of demolition waste using life cycle assessment and willingness-to-pay: A case study in Shenzhen," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 172, pp. 14-26, 2018.
[23]         S. E. Mills TH, Jarman D, "A cost effective waste management plan," Cost Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 35-43, 1999.
[24]         L. H. Duran X, O’Regan B, "A model for assessing the economic viability of construction and demolition waste recycling—the case of Ireland," Resources,Conservation and Recycling vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 302-20, 2006.
[25]         H. Guo, "A System Dynamics Model for Construction Waste Resource Recovery Management in China," Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería, vol. 31, no. 6, 2016.
[26]         J. Won and J. C. Cheng, "Identifying potential opportunities of building information modeling for construction and demolition waste management and minimization," Automation in Construction, vol. 79, pp. 3-18, 2017.
[27]         S. Jia, G. Yan, A. Shen, and J. Zheng, "Dynamic simulation analysis of a construction and demolition waste management model under penalty and subsidy mechanisms," Journal of cleaner production, vol. 147, pp. 531-545, 2017.
[28]         Z. Ding, M. Zhu, V. W. Tam, G. Yi, and C. N. Tran, "A system dynamics-based environmental benefit assessment model of construction waste reduction management at the design and construction stages," Journal of cleaner production, vol. 176, pp. 676-692, 2018.
[29]         B. Huang, X. Wang, H. Kua, Y. Geng, R. Bleischwitz, and J. Ren, "Construction and demolition waste management in China through the 3R principle," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 129, pp. 36-44, 2018.
[30]         T. M. Mak et al., "Extended theory of planned behaviour for promoting construction waste recycling in Hong Kong," Waste management, vol. 83, pp. 161-170, 2019.
[31]         O. P. Richardson GP, "Application of system dynamics in marketing: editorial," Journal of Business Research vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1099-101, 2008.
[32]         Z. Ding, M. Zhu, V. W. Y. Tam, G. Yi, and C. N. N. Tran, "A system dynamics-based environmental benefit assessment model of construction waste reduction management at the design and construction stages," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 176, pp. 676-692, 2018/03/01/ 2018.
[33]         A. Rodrigues and J. Bowers, "The role of system dynamics in project management," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 213-220, 1996/08/01/ 1996.
[34]         L. P. Li H, Drew DS, "Effects of overtime work and additional resources on project cost and quality," Engineering, Construction an Architectural Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 211-20, 2000.
[35]         Y. H. Wang JY, "On-site construction waste management model based on system dynamics. ," Science & Technology Progress and Policy, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 74-8, 2008.
[36]         C. R. Elias AA, Jackson LS, "Linking stakeholder literature and system dynamics: opportunities for research.," presented at the In: First International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management, 2000.
[37]         C. N. Dyson B, "Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fastgrowing urban region with system dynamics modeling," Waste Management, vol. 25, pp. 669-79, 2005.
[38]         H. M. Hao JL, Huang T, "A simulation model using system dynamic method for construction and demolition waste management in Hong Kong," Journal of Construction Innovation vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 7-21, 2007.
[39]         W. Y. Shen LY, Chan EHW, Hao JL, "Application of system dynamics for assessment of sustainable performance of construction projects," Journal of Zhejiang University Science & Technology Progress and Policy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 339-49, 2005.
[40]         J. D. Sterman, Business Dynamics Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World. McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000, p. 1008.
[41]         Q. Cui, H.-b. Kuang, C.-y. Wu, and Y. Li, "Dynamic formation mechanism of airport competitiveness: The case of China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 47, pp. 10-18, 2013/01/01/ 2013.
[42]         H. Qudrat-Ullah and B. S. Seong, "How to do structural validity of a system dynamics type simulation model: The case of an energy policy model," Energy policy, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 2216-2224, 2010.
[43]         H. Klee, "The Cement Sustainability Initiatve," World Business Counsil for Sustainable Development, 2009.