Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

Document Type : Original Article


1 MSc of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran


Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW) with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu) by the base shear demand (Vd) as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD) method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.


[1]ASCE/SEI 7-10; “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures”, Reston, Virginia, United States, Published by American Society of Civil Engineers, 2010, 608 pages.
[2] Dan D, Fabian A, Stoian V; “Theoretical and experimental study on composite steel–concrete shear walls with vertical steel encased profiles”; J. Construct. Steel Res; 2011, 67:800–13.
[3] Priestley M.J.N, Calvi G.M, Kowalsky M.J; “Displacement-based Seismic Design of Structures”;Pavia, Italy, IUSS Press, 2007, 721 pages.
[4] Priestley, M. J.; Amaris, Alejandro D; “Dynamic Amplification of Seismic Moments and Shear Forces in Cantilever Walls”; Pavia, Italy ,IUSS Press, 2002, 75 pages.
[5] Priestley M. J. N and Kowalsky M. J; “Direct displacement-based design of concrete buildings”; Bull.New Zealand Nat. Soc. Earthq.Engrg., 1998, 33(4).
[6] Tehranizadeh M, Yakhchalian M; “Displacement Based and Consolidated Force/Displacement Based Methods for Seismic Assessment of Steel Moment Resisting Frames”; Scientia Iranica, Volume 18, Issue 5, October, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2011, Pages 1054–1060.
[7] Malekpour S, Dashti F, Ghaffarzadeh H; “An Investigation on DDBD Approach of Near-Fault RC Frame, RC Wall-Frame and Steel Braced RC Frame Systems”; The Fiftheenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, Portugal, 2012.
[8] Lopez R.G; “Development of a Displacement Based Design Method for Steel Frame-RC Wall Buildings”, Pavia, Italy, ROSE SCHOOL, IUSS Press, 2007, 46 pages.
[9] Sullivan T.J, Priestley M.J.N and Calvi G.M; “Seismic Design of Frame-Wall Structures”; Pavia, Italy, IUSS Press, ROSE SCHOOL, Research Report No. 2006/02, 2006.
[10] وزارت راه و شهرسازی، استاندارد 84-2800، آیین­نامه طراحی ساختمان­ها در برابر زلزله، ویرایش سوم، 1389.
 [11] Seismosoft, SeismoArtif, “An application capable of generating artificial earthquake accelerograms matched to a specific target response spectrum using different calculation methods and varied assumptions”, Available Online at, 2012.
 [12] MacGregor J.G and White J.K; “Reinforced Concrete, Mechanics and Design”, 6th Edition;New Jersey, USA, Pearson Education, Inc., 2012, 1176 pages.
[13] Seismosoft, SeismoStruct, “A computer program for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures”, Available Online at, 2013.
[14] Martinelli P and Filippou F; “Simulation of the Shaking Table Test of a Seven-Story Shear Wall Building”; Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2009, 38, 587-607.
[15] شابدین م، سلطانی محمدی م، "ارزیابی روش طراحی مستقیم بر اساس تغییرمکان در طرح لرزه­ای دیوارهای برشی بتن مسلح"، تهران، ایران، مجله علمی پژوهشی مهندسی عمران شریف، دوره­ی 28-2 شماره­ی 4، 1391، ص. 25-38.
[16] Mander J.B, Priestley M.J.N, Park R; “Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete”; Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.114, No.8, 1988, pp.1804-1826.
[17] Menegotto M and Pinto P.E; “Method of Analysis for Cyclically Loaded R.C. Plane Frames Including Changes in Geometry and non-elastic Behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending Symposium on the Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads”; Zurich, Switzerland, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering,1973,pp.15-22.