Investigation and extraction of compressive strengths of concrete containing zeolite and bentonite, according to the dimensions and type of samples (cubic and cylindrical) at different temperatures

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Sc. graduate, Faculty of civil engineering, Semnan University, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

3 Associate Proffessor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


Cement production is one of the major pollution contributors owing to its large rates of energy consumption and gas emission. Moreover, high temperatures could detrimentally impact the concrete infrastructure and thus, it would be essential to study performance of such structures under exposure to the elevated temperatures. In this paper, post-heat performance of the concrete whose cement has been replaced by zeolite and bentonite at ratios of 6 and 10% (by cement weight) under exposure to temperatures of 28, 150, 300 and 700°C, was studied. For this purpose, cubic specimens with sizes of 100×100×100, 150×150×150 and 200×200×200mm and cylindrical specimens with sizes of 200×100 and 300×150mm, were produced. Based on the results, replacing cement by zeolite and bentonite at the age of 90 days under ambient temperature, increases the compressive strength compared to the control specimen. Moreover, it was observed that heating the cubic and cylindrical specimens containing 10% bentonite at 150°C, increase the compressive strength by 40%.Conversely, the results indicate that when exposed to temperatures of 300 and 700°C, a decreasing trend is seen in the tensile strength of both cubic and cylindrical specimens containing the pozzolans. Besides, to study micro-structure of the specimens, the X-ray diffraction tests were carried out on the specimens at the age of 28 days. The difference between conversion ratio of the cubic and cylindrical specimens in this study, to the values provided by the codes, is less than 10%.


Main Subjects

[1]        Jiang, J., Lu, Z., Li, J., Xie, Y., Luo, K., & Niu, Y. (2019). Preparation and properties of nanopore-rich lightweight cement paste based on swelled bentonite. Construction and Building Materials, 199, 72–81.
[2]        Environment, U. N., Scrivener, K. L., John, V. M., & Gartner, E. M. (2018). Eco-efficient cements: Potential economically viable solutions for a low-CO2 cement-based materials industry. Cement and concrete research, 114, 2–26.
[3]        Pachideh, G., Gholhaki, M., & Moshtagh, A. (2019). On the post-heat performance of cement mortar containing silica fume or Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag. Journal of Building Engineering, 24, 100757.
[4]        Pachideh, G., Gholhaki M. (2019) an experimental study on the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers to concrete on its resistance after different temperatures, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 47(2), 1606-1620.
[5]        Rehman, S. U., Yaqub, M., Noman, M., Ali, B., Ayaz Khan, M. N., Fahad, M., … Gul, A. (2019). The Influence of Thermo-Mechanical Activation of Bentonite on the Mechanical and Durability Performance of Concrete. Applied Sciences, 9(24), 5549.
[6]        Taklymi, S. M. Q., Rezaifar, O., & Gholhaki, M. (2020). Investigating the properties of bentonite and kaolin modified concrete as a partial substitute to cement. SN Applied Sciences, 2(12), 1–14.
[7]        Shabab, M. E., Shahzada, K., Gencturk, B., Ashraf, M., & Fahad, M. (2016). Synergistic effect of fly ash and bentonite as partial replacement of cement in mass concrete. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(5), 1987–1995.
[8]        Trümer, A., Ludwig, H.-M., Schellhorn, M., & Diedel, R. (2019). Effect of a calcined Westerwald bentonite as supplementary cementitious material on the long-term performance of concrete. Applied Clay Science, 168, 36–42.
[9]        Karthikeyan, M., Ramachandran, P. R., Nandhini, A., & Vinodha, R. (2015). Application on partial substitute of cement by bentonite in concrete. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 8(11), 384–388.
[10]      Reddy, G. V. K., Rao, V. R., & Reddy, M. A. K. (2017). Experimental investigation of strength parameters of cement and concrete by partial replacement of cement with Indian calcium bentonite. Int J Civ Eng Technol, 8(1), 512–518.
[11]      Memon, S. A., Arsalan, R., Khan, S., & Lo, T. Y. (2012). Utilization of Pakistani bentonite as partial replacement of cement in concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 30, 237–242.
[12]      Mesboua, N., Benyounes, K., Kennouche, S., Ammar, Y., Benmounah, A., & Kemer, H. (2021). Calcinated Bentonite as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Cement-Based Mortar. Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences, 11(1), 23–32.
[13]      A. Al-Hammood, A., J. Frayyeh, Q., & A. Abbas, W. (2021). Thermally Activated Bentonite As a Supplementary Cementitious Material – A Review. Engineering and Technology Journal, 39(2A), 206–213.
[14]      Al-hammood, A. A. (2021). Iraqi bentonite as a natural pozzolan for sustainable concrete, 1–23.
[15]      Ahmadi, B., & Shekarchi, M. (2010). Use of natural zeolite as a supplementary cementitious material. Cement and Concrete Composites, 32(2), 134–141.
[16]      Samimi, K., Kamali-Bernard, S., Maghsoudi, A. A., Maghsoudi, M., & Siad, H. (2017). Influence of pumice and zeolite on compressive strength, transport properties and resistance to chloride penetration of high strength self-compacting concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 151, 292–311.
[17]      Ramezanianpour, A. A., Mousavi, R., Kalhori, M., Sobhani, J., & Najimi, M. (2015). Micro and macro level properties of natural zeolite contained concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 101, 347–358.
[18]      Raggiotti, B. B., Positieri, M. J., & Oshiro, Á. (2018). Natural zeolite, a pozzolan for structural concrete. Procedia Structural Integrity, 11, 36–43.
[19]      Abdul-Wahab, S. A., Hassan, E. M., Al-Jabri, K. S., & Yetilmezsoy, K. (2019). Utilizing zeolite/kaolin combination for partial cement clinker replacement to manufacture environmentally sustainable cement in Oman.
[20]      Moghadam, M. A., & Izadifard, R. A. (2020). Effects of zeolite and silica fume substitution on the microstructure and mechanical properties of mortar at high temperatures. Construction and Building Materials, 253, 119206.
[21]      Thang, N. C., Tuan, N. Van, Yang, K.-H., & Phung, Q. T. (2020). Effect of Zeolite on Shrinkage and Crack Resistance of High-Performance Cement-Based Concrete. Materials, 13(17), 3773.
[22]      Abdolsha, F., Rezaifar, O. and Gholhaki, M. (2021). Study of changes in mechanical properties of concrete containing bentonite and zeolite in cement replacement. Amirkabir Civil Engineering.(in persian)
[23]      Zargar, Z., Rezaifar, O. and Gholhaki, M. (2021). Evaluation of the effectiveness of straw fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete containing zeolite and bentonite. Amirkabir Civil Engineering.(in persian)
[24]      Standard, A. (2003). C33,“Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates,” ASTM International, vol. i, no. C.
[25]      ASTM, C. (2014). Standard test method for density (unit weight), yield, and air content (gravimetric) of concrete.
[26]      Behnood, A., & Ziari, H. (2008). Effects of silica fume addition and water to cement ratio on the properties of high-strength concrete after exposure to high temperatures. Cement and Concrete Composites, 30(2), 106–112.
[27]      Standard, B. (2009). Testing hardened concrete. Compressive Strength of Test Specimens, BS EN, 12390–12393.
[28]      Standard, A. (2010). Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. ASTM C39.
[29]      Norma, A. (2004). C496/C496M-11, Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 469–490.
[30]      ANSI, A. (2010). AISC 360-10. Chicago, IL.
[31]      Eurocode, E. (2004). 2: design of concrete structures-part 1-2: general rules-structural fire design. Brussels: European Concrete Platform.
[32]      Morsy, M. S., Galal, A. F., & Abo-El-Enein, S. A. (1998). Effect of temperature on phase composition and microstructure of artificial pozzolana-cement pastes containing burnt kaolinite clay. Cement and concrete research, 28(8), 1157–1163.